Peridot: a reservation’s buried treasure

Faceted peridot from San Carlos (photo Tino Hammid)

Charles Vargas is one of the few Apaches born and raised on San Carlos Reservation who left to get a college education and work in the outside world. That experience helped him recognize the treasure he and his tribe had been sitting on for more than a century: peridot.

When I visited the reservation in 1997 with Elana Verbin, then-editor of Colored Stone magazine, Vargas showed us around and told us stories about the peridot he grew up with. His mother remembered playing games as a child with the little green stones scattered around the reservation. No one paid them much attention, although local trading posts would buy them for a few cents on the dollar.

After returning to San Carlos, Vargas began mining peridot and, in 1993, launched Apache Gems. San Carlos has since become one of the world’s primary sources of gem-quality peridot.

When the U.S. government designated a large chunk of central Arizona as an Apache reservation in 1871, they had no idea how mineral-rich it was. Silver and copper were discovered there a few years later and the government began re-appropriating large sections – including the area in nearby Globe where the coveted Sleeping Beauty turquoise is mined.

Some of that land was returned to the reservation in 1972. San Carlos Reservation now covers 1.82 million acres, about half its original size.

A miner with San Carlos peridot (photo ©Cathleen McCarthy)

Mining on San Carlos is still done primarily by freelancers with pick and hammer. When I took these photos to accompany Elana’s story, the mining operation had just transferred to a new location on Peridot Mesa. A couple local miners were working the side of the canyon with a pick. A few yards away, a mother and her 5-year-old son were picking at the chips with a gardening fork, filling a mason jar and sawed-off Coke can with greenish pebbles that would be tumbled for beads. After a couple hours, she brought the jar to Vargas. He handed her $30 and she left with a smile to buy some groceries.


Charles Vargas buys peridot from a local family in 1997 (photo ©Cathleen McCarthy)

Vargas told us he encouraged this and tried to get people to come to him directly so outsiders wouldn’t try to scam them, as traders had been doing for generations. Folks on the reservation weren’t looking to get rich, he explained, just to get by. “Gold and gems are not seen as valuable goods but as a loaf of bread or a box of diapers,” he told us.

At the time, tribal elders were worried about losing control of the mine and Vargas was working hard to keep profits on the reservation. A decade ago, when the last census was taken, San Carlos was one of the poorest reservations in the U.S., with almost 59 percent of its residents living below the poverty line. Vargas worried the tribe’s dependence on government subsidies would lead the U.S. to claim some of its mining operation.

Peridot mine on San Carlos Reservation (photo Cathleen McCarthy)

Peridot mine on San Carlos Reservation (photo ©Cathleen McCarthy)

Thirteen years later, Vargas is still running Apache Gems and only members of the San Carlos tribe are allowed to mine Peridot Mesa. You can find Apache Gems jewelry at galleries and museums, including the Heard Museum in Phoenix, Autry National Center in Los Angeles, and the reservation’s own cultural center.

Charles Vargas at his mine on San Carlos Reservation, 1997 (photo ©Cathleen McCarthy)

Thanks to Vargas, many folks on the San Carlos Reservation are now trained lapidaries with a solid understanding of geology. Yet individual wealth is still not highly valued. “You could tell someone that there’s sapphire over there in that ground and the stones go for $10,000 a carat and they’d say ‘that’s neat,’” he told us.

Sapphire had been found on the property not long before and Vargas was hopeful that more was on the way.  But while many other gems have appeared, including opal and, more recently, fire agate, peridot remains the tribe’s bread and butter.

Peridot Mesa produces mainly small stones with good yellow-green color – the kind that sell for about $97 to $175 per carat these days, according to the latest edition of Antoinette Matlins’ Colored Gemstone. Gem-quality peridot weighing five or more carats is rare and can cost $165 to $275 per carat. I also hear the San Carlos mines are more carefully guarded these days.

So far, so good.

All photos are mine, except gem shot by Tino Hammid. Please do not use without permission.

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13 comments for “Peridot: a reservation’s buried treasure

  1. August 5, 2010 at 6:14 pm

    This is a very hopeful and interesting story. Mr. Vargas obviously has a strong love for where he came from and deserves a lot of credit setting up an industry to help support the people who live on the land where the gemstones are found. It is only fair that they should benefit from the arrangement, even if they only want for basic necessities.

  2. Cathleen McCarthy
    August 5, 2010 at 7:58 pm

    Thanks for the feedback, Jennifer. There’s plenty more to this story, as you can imagine. I think it’s wonderful that the land this tribe was forced to live on proved mineral-rich. Too bad all reservations didn’t come with buried treasure!

  3. Ruth
    November 11, 2011 at 10:10 pm

    Hi! This is great.
    Is there a possibility to buy peridot chips and get them shipped to europe? where and how?

  4. Cathleen McCarthy
    November 12, 2011 at 3:08 am

    Ruth, check out the links at the bottom of this page on Apache Gems’ site:

  5. August 5, 2013 at 5:32 pm

    I know I’m a couple years late reading this but I loved this article. I also visited peridot mesa a few years ago (in fact, it was revisiting my article that led me to yours’), and you’ve really captured the vibe of the place. I love all the details.

  6. Cathleen McCarthy
    August 5, 2013 at 6:25 pm

    Thanks, Jordan. I’m relieved to hear the vibe I captured matches your impression. It’s been a long time since my visit and I’ve been curious about what’s going on there.

  7. Joelle
    August 19, 2014 at 12:46 am

    Do you happen to know any more recent information for Mr Vargas? The Apache Gems site no longer exists and I can’t find any current info by Googling him…

  8. Warren
    August 25, 2014 at 5:55 pm

    Charles Vargas is still very active in the gemstone business mining and selling peridot, chromium pyrope garnets, demantoid garnets, and copper related minerals such as chrysocholla, azurite, malachite and others. I know this from first hand experience as I talk to him regularly and saw him recently. I think he is planning on reactivating a new website soon.

  9. August 25, 2014 at 8:33 pm

    Thanks for weighing in, Warren. I’ll keep an eye out for the new site. Meanwhile, I invite anyone in touch with Charles – or Charles himself! – to comment here and I will update this post with new links.

  10. Thomas
    January 2, 2017 at 2:11 am

    The site can be visited only when guided by a tribal member in good standing. I just visited there last week. The guide told me that Charles Vargas violated some tribal rules and he is banned from the site. If you want to visit you need to find different guide. They are all low key, working by word of mouth, generarly letting in only geologists or gemologists. The best is to contact ASU geology department to be matched with a guide.

  11. January 7, 2017 at 12:42 am

    Greetings All,

    As an update I am currently director of the Apache Nation Chamber of Commerce at San Carlos reservation. We continue our work reservation wide with fresh production and discoveries. Be assured the good work continues and we are open for contact direct or other. Appreciate all the kind words posted in support of our progress. Jewelry making is becoming a focus among artist on the reservation exemplifying uses of the many gemstones from our lands as historical trade products. Will be in Tucson offering a talk to the national appraisers association on Apache Blue Stones as well introducing the latest innovation of contemporary indigenous jewelry lines created on the reservation. May the new year bring luck to seekers of treasures and good fortune to all.

    Charles Vargas

    CEO Apache Gems

    Director Apache Nation Chamber of Commerce

  12. January 7, 2017 at 6:54 pm

    Thanks for the update, Charles.

  13. July 31, 2017 at 1:05 pm

    I have two Peridots trees made by local craftsmen. Base is the stone, tree is made from copper and the branches are filled with Peridots. I consider them very special as a remembrance of time spent on the Reservation.

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